A simple Mediterranean-style diet in pregnancy does not reduce the overall risk of complications for the mother and fetus, but can reduce weight gain in pregnancy and the risk of gestational diabetes, according to a clinical study conducted by Queen Mary University of London and from the University of Warwick.
The results, which are based on the study of 1252 women, show that a Mediterranean-style diet (including 30 g of mixed nuts a day and extra virgin olive oil) led to a 35 percent lower risk of developing diabetes in pregnancy, and on average 1,25 kg less weight gain in pregnancy compared to those who received routine prenatal care.
Professor Shakila Thangaratinam of Queen Mary University of London said: "This is the first study showing that pregnant women at high risk of complications can benefit from a Mediterranean-style diet to reduce their weight gain and diabetes risk. gestational. "
Implementation of this diet appears to be effective and acceptable for women. Current national dietary guidelines do not include the key components of the Mediterranean-style diet in their recommendations. Women who are at risk of gestational diabetes should be encouraged to act early in the pregnancy by consuming more nuts, olive oil, fruit and unrefined cereals, reducing the intake of animal fats and sugars.
One in four mothers become pregnant with pre-existing obesity, chronic hypertension or high lipid levels. These can lead to complications of pregnancy, including gestational diabetes (when high blood sugar develops during pregnancy) and pre-eclampsia - the onset of hypertension in pregnancy, which can sometimes turn into more serious conditions that affect multiple organs. These mothers and their babies are also at long term risk of diabetes and cardiovascular complications.
A Mediterranean-type diet rich in unsaturated fatty acids reduces the incidence of cardiovascular disease in the non-pregnant population. In pregnancy, such a diet has the potential to improve maternal and offspring outcomes, but so far it has not been widely evaluated.