(About a German and a French film)
E 'was sent around the world (and for a long time) "poor and naked" and in the end the "philosophy" did not make it just to survive and died.
In reality, the unconditional love for the knowledge free of irrational and imaginative trappings has had a difficult life since the moment of birth: the religion that escaped in man was already waiting for him, with the reassuring vision of the presence of a God, fear of the unknown.
The need for dualism (there is not only our world, what we see and touch: there is something else) was also felt by philosophers, probably envious of the influence and power that shamans and religious priests exercised over people by talking about a "another world".
Plato and his followers then invented "metaphysics" (the so-called "hyperuranium world") and the Idea that precedes and presides over knowledge; they also felt the need to set the Academy against the Ecclesia.
The pre-Socratic philosophers, monists, empiricists, experimental rationalists, adequately disparaged by the students of the authoritarian Athenian philosopher (Diogenes with the lantern, Epicurus with the crapule, the Stoics with the cold columns and so on) began to wander "poor and naked" until to disappear completely.
For a long time their disappearance remained "untarnished".
Those who had attempted to brush up on the ancient monistic philosophy that did without a creator and all-seeing God had been overwhelmed by outrageous epithets (cosmic pessimist, prophet of misfortunes, ominous bird, wretched nihilist) and condemned to oblivion.
The "value" and importance of true philosophy (clearly not the dualistic and idealistic one, which rose to the "honors" of absolute power in the "short century" with Nazi-fascism and social-communism), have recently been dusted off by two beautiful films, one French by Nicolas Pariser ("Alice and the Mayor") and the other German by Florian Henckel Von Donnersmarch ("Work without author, in original: Werk ohne autor).
The lack of a philosophical thought not altered by irrational, falsely reassuring visions, is felt by the two authors cited not only or not so much under the cultural profile (lack of a guide that makes us understand the true essence of the world and of life against the trend of people who believe they can do without it taken by frantic activism and obsessive consumerism) as much and above all to be able to walk "less blindly" in our practical life and, in particular, in political activity.
It is difficult even to imagine that an Italian author can now place himself alongside Pariser and Henckel.
Italy, which also had its last (only, immense) philosopher of the modern era in Giacomo Leopardi by Zibaldone has remained behind on the ground of philosophical speculation, delighting, not only with writing but also with images, in works by fantasy, fiction, history and memorialism.
Question: On a philosophical level, what do these films teach?
While never falling into the didactic trap and professorial saccenteria, they tell us that the more intense the life, the greater the self-love that is identified with the desire for happiness (or for one's own pleasure: also according to the British Oscar Wilde, self-love is the only feeling that lasts a lifetime). And that, therefore, religious ecumenism (supported to a greater extent by the Christian Church), philosophical egalitarian universalism (typical of communist ideology, daughter of German post-Platonic or left-wing Hegelian idealism), human "globalization" and economic (desired, in their exclusive and insatiable interest, by the tycoons of Finance), imposing, as a result of their respective messages, that self-love, innate in man and born from the sentiment of life (without self-love there is no life ), must extend beyond its natural borders have transformed and distorted the true meaning of human existence and politics (etymologically: interest in the polis).
With the pretense of "changing" self-love, expanding it to the point of making it universal love, these flows of thought (religious and pseudo-philosophical) have had the nefarious effect of transforming self-love into hatred for others, also natural in the individual. That hatred that, according to Leopardi (and not only for him: think of Hobbes) everyone feels for his fellow man who is not known to him has meant that human beings (the most antisocial of living beings, according to the poet of Recanati) with the bogus justification of the false universalisms of evil and harmful "teachers of thought" (lay people), quite similar to the ecumenisms of shamans and religious men (sick with the anxiety of proselytism) destroyed, physically eliminating them, the opponents of their faith or of their political fanaticism.
In other words, Man instead of connecting, only for defensive war purposes or for other reasons of necessity, with the members of his polis (alias of the community in which he lives) in the (clearly fake) intent to go beyond (circumscribed to himself and to his fellow citizens) the so-called "amorous" feelings has created a planetary chaos of rancor that sociologists from various parts of the world find it hard to describe (for Italy, see the Censis report) in their terrible effects.
The magnificent film by the German director shows us with dense and effective images that German Hegelian idealism was the father (and remains so for the late or new followers) of both Nazism and communism, monozygotic twin brothers of a crazy idea, at least as great as that of the three impostures of humanity (Moses, Christ and Mohammed), referred to in Baruch Spinoza.
From the examples of Nazi-Fascism and Social-Communism it can be deduced that if individuals had not lost contact with the monistic, empiricistic, realistic, rational, pragmatic philosophical visions of life in the polis they would not have fallen into the trap of imaginative visions of Ideas. Salvific universals that have spread deaths, massacres, massacres, genocides, disastrous wars, ferocious aversions between peoples and within them (the history of humanity is full of them).
The French film tells us that politics is nothing but an aspect of "practical philosophy".
Returning to the speculation of "pure and unconditional" thought means seeing that reasoning and logic do not tolerate dualistic vision, the fruit of indulging fantasies.
Solving people's practical problems, focusing on their problems and making rational and correct choices must become, for the rulers, a must that cannot be eluded.
For political wrongdoing, there must be no religious loopholes (repentance, forgiveness, redemption) or false justifications (with bogus claims of universal love).
If people, lucidly and without misleading aberrations, judge the work of politicians for what they should represent: men, that is, who are in the interests of the polis (maximum extension of self-love), everything can go again in an acceptable direction. quite right.
Conclusion: thanks, therefore, to these two authors who (instead of shooting us left-handed shots like many of their fellow countrymen) have offered us two works of clear and crystalline thought!